Refine a Triangulation

TRIANGULATION_REFINE, a C++ code which reads information describing a triangulation of a set of points and creates a refined triangulation.

The refined triangulation is created by dividing each triangle into four similar subtriangles. The mesh size parameter h will be halved by such a procedure. If the input triangulation is Delaunay, then so will be the output triangulation.

The program can handle triangulations that use 3 or 6 nodes per triangle.

The input and output files use the simple TABLE format; comment lines begin with a "#" character. Otherwise, each line of the file contains one set of information, either the coordinates of a node (for a node file), or the indices of nodes that make up a triangle, (for a triangle file).

The input file prefix_nodes.txt contains the node information for the triangulation. Each data line contains the X and Y coordinates of a single node.

The input file prefix_elements.txt contains the triangle information for the triangulation. Each line contains the indices of 3 or 6 nodes that form a triangle.


triangulation_refine prefix
where prefix is the common filename prefix:


The computer code and data files described and made available on this web page are distributed under the GNU LGPL license.


TRIANGULATION_REFINE is available in a C++ version and a FORTRAN90 version and . a MATLAB version.

Related Data and Programs:

TABLE, a data format which is used for the input and output files.

TRIANGLE, a C program which computes a triangulation of a geometric region.

TRIANGULATION, a C++ library which carries out various operations on order 3 ("linear") or order 6 ("quadratic") triangulations.

TRIANGULATION_BOUNDARY_NODES, a C++ program which reads data defining a triangulation, determines which nodes lie on the boundary, and writes their coordinates to a file.

TRIANGULATION_CORNER, a C++ program which patches triangulations so that no triangle has two sides on the boundary.

TRIANGULATION_DELAUNAY_DISCREPANCY, a C++ program which measures the amount by which a triangulation fails the local Delaunay test;

TRIANGULATION_DISPLAY_OPENGL, a C++ program which reads files defining a triangulation and displays an image using Open GL.

TRIANGULATION_HISTOGRAM, a C++ program which computes histograms of data over a triangulation.

TRIANGULATION_L2Q, a C++ program that reads data defining a 3-node triangulation and generates midside nodes and writes out the corresponding 6-node triangulation.

TRIANGULATION_MASK, a C++ program which takes an existing triangulation and deletes triangles and their corresponding nodes as requested by the user.

TRIANGULATION_NODE_TO_ELEMENT, a C++ program which reads files describing a set of nodes, their triangulation, and the value of one or more quantities at each node, and outputs a file that averages the quantities for each element. This operation in effect creates an "order1" finite element model of the data.

TRIANGULATION_ORDER3, a directory which contains a description and examples of order 3 triangulations.

TRIANGULATION_ORDER6, a directory which contains a description and examples of order 6 triangulations.

TRIANGULATION_ORIENT, a C++ program which reads data defining a triangulation, makes sure that every triangle has positive orientation, and if not, writes a corrected triangle file.

TRIANGULATION_PLOT, a C++ program which reads data defining a triangulation and creates a PostScript image of the nodes and triangles.

TRIANGULATION_Q2L, a C++ program which reads data defining a 6-node triangulation, and subdivides each triangle into 4 3-node triangles, writing the resulting triangulation to a file.

TRIANGULATION_QUAD, a C++ program which estimates the integral of a function over a triangulated region.

TRIANGULATION_QUALITY, a C++ program which reads data defining a triangulation and computes a number of quality measures.


TRIANGULATION_TRIANGLE_NEIGHBORS, a C++ program which reads data defining a triangulation, determines the neighboring triangles of each triangle, and writes that information to a file.


  1. Marc deBerg, Marc Krevald, Mark Overmars, Otfried Schwarzkopf,
    Computational Geometry,
    Springer, 2000,
    ISBN: 3-540-65620-0.
  2. Joseph ORourke,
    Computational Geometry,
    Second Edition,
    Cambridge, 1998,
    ISBN: 0521649765,
    LC: QA448.D38.

Source Code:

Last revised on 06 May 2020.