# EXACTNESS Exactness of Quadrature Rules

EXACTNESS is a FORTRAN77 library which investigates the exactness of quadrature rules that estimate the integral of a function with a density, such as 1, exp(-x) or exp(-x^2), over an interval such as [-1,+1], [0,+oo) or (-oo,+oo).

A 1D quadrature rule estimates I(f), the integral of a function f(x) over an interval [a,b] with density rho(x):

```        I(f) = integral ( a < x < b ) f(x) rho(x) dx
```
by a n-point quadrature rule of weights w and points x:
```        Q(f) = sum ( 1 <= i <= n ) w(i) f(x(i))
```

Most quadrature rules come in a family of various sizes. A quadrature rule of size n is said to have exactness p if it is true that the quadrature estimate is exactly equal to the exact integral for every monomial (and hence, polynomial) whose degree is p or less.

This program allows the user to specify a quadrature rule, a size n, and a degree p_max. It then computes and compares the exact integral and quadrature estimate for monomials of degree 0 through p_max, so that the user can analyze the results.

Common densities include:

• Chebyshev Type 1 density 1/sqrt(1-x^2), over [-1,+1],
• Chebyshev Type 2 density sqrt(1-x^2), over [-1,+1].
• Gegenbauer density (1-x^2)^(lambda-1/2), over [-1,+1].
• Hermite (physicist) density 1/sqrt(pi) exp(-x^2), over (-oo,+oo).
• Hermite (probabilist) density 1/sqrt(2*pi) exp(-x^2/2), over (-oo,+oo).
• Hermite (unit) density 1, over (-oo,+oo).
• Jacobi density (1-x)^alpha*(1+x)^beta, over [-1,+1].
• Laguerre (standard) density exp(-1), over [0,+oo).
• Laguerre (unit) density 1, over [0,+oo).
• Legendre density 1, over [-1,+1].

• Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature for Legendre density, exactness = n - 1;
• Fejer Type 1 quadrature for Legendre density, exactness = n - 1;
• Fejer Type 2 quadrature for Legendre density, exactness = n - 1;
• Gauss-Chebyshev Type 1 quadrature, exactness = 2 * n - 1;
• Gauss-Chebyshev Type 2 quadrature, exactness = 2 * n - 1;
• Gauss-Gegenbauer quadrature, exactness = 2 * n - 1;
• Gauss-Hermite quadrature, exactness = 2 * n - 1;
• Gauss-Laguerre quadrature, exactness = 2 * n - 1;
• Gauss-Legendre quadrature, exactness = 2 * n - 1;

### Languages:

EXACTNESS is available in a C version and a C++ version and a FORTRAN77 version and a FORTRAN90 version and a MATLAB version and a Python version.

### Related Data and Programs:

EXACTNESS_2D, a FORTRAN77 library which investigates the exactness of 2D quadrature rules that estimate the integral of a function f(x,y) over a 2D domain.

HERMITE_EXACTNESS, a FORTRAN77 program which tests the monomial exactness of Gauss-Hermite quadrature rules for estimating the integral of a function with density exp(-x^2) over the interval (-oo,+oo).

LAGUERRE_EXACTNESS, a FORTRAN77 program which tests the monomial exactness of Gauss-Laguerre quadrature rules for estimating the integral of a function with density exp(-x) over the interval [0,+oo).

LEGENDRE_EXACTNESS, a FORTRAN77 program which tests the monomial exactness of Gauss-Legendre quadrature rules for estimating the integral of a function with density 1 over the interval [-1,+1].

PYRAMID_EXACTNESS, a FORTRAN77 program which investigates the monomial exactness of a quadrature rule over the interior of a pyramid in 3D.

SPHERE_EXACTNESS, a FORTRAN77 program which tests the monomial exactness of a quadrature rule over the surface of the unit sphere in 3D.

### Reference:

1. Philip Davis, Philip Rabinowitz,
Methods of Numerical Integration,
Second Edition,
Dover, 2007,
ISBN: 0486453391,
LC: QA299.3.D28.

### List of Routines:

• HERMITE_EXACTNESS investigates exactness of Hermite quadrature.
• HERMITE_INTEGRAL evaluates a monomial Hermite integral.
• LAGUERRE_EXACTNESS investigates exactness of Laguerre quadrature.
• LAGUERRE_INTEGRAL evaluates a monomial integral associated with L(n,x).